High Availability in OpenStack

Posted on Wed 21 March 2012 in blog

A few thoughts on high availability features (or the current absence thereof) in OpenStack.

I've just proposed a session for the OpenStack Folsom design summit which Jay Pipes was nice enough to invite me to (thanks!), and I thought I'd write up a few thoughts of mine ahead of time to get the discussion started.

A little while back, Tristan van Bokkem started a discussion on high availability for Nova on the OpenStack mailing list. So in Nova specifically, there are a few components where high availability is readily available; you just have to use it.

  • MySQL. That's a no-brainer. MySQL HA with Pacemaker has been done so many times that I won't rehash it here. What's nice in this regard is that Galera (included in Percona XtraDB Cluster) now promises to do away with the limitations of both DRBD and traditional MySQL replication, and provide multiple-node, multiple-master synchronous replication for MySQL. As I'm sure you're aware, classic MySQL replication isn't synchronous, and DRBD can't do multi-node master-master, but the Galera based solution looks promising, if not as mature as the other two. Of course, I don't understand why the Galera folks had to reinvent not only replication (which makes sense) but also cluster membership and management (which doesn't), but that's a different discussion to be had altogether.
  • RabbitMQ. Has somewhat similar HA considerations as MySQL. A Pacemaker/DRBD-based solution exists, but is considered deprecated by the RabbitMQ maintainers. Enter mirrored queues, where again the developers seemingly threw out the baby with the bath water and rather than just reimplementing replication (sensible), they came up with their own cluster manager (questionable). Their mirrored queues would probably have played very nicely with master/slave sets in Pacemaker.

As Tom Ellis pointed out in another email the previously mentioned thread, there are more HA considerations for services in Nova proper.

  • nova-volume still has a lot of work to do. It has an iSCSI driver which can of course be used as an iSCSI proxy pointed at a highly available, potentially DRBD-backed, software iSCSI target. Or at an iSCSI based hardware solution that has HA built-in, such as HP LeftHand. Alternatively, we could just operate on RBD volumes (part of Ceph) which will also take care of redundancy for us, and add seamless scaleout and remirroring. That being said, there is currently no real HA provision for the nova-volume service itself, and that's something that will be required.
  • Compute nodes can all run their own instance of nova-api.
  • Front-end API servers can all run nova-scheduler, with a load balancer in front of them.

The Pacemaker stack has the potential of being a nice fit for most of the above. It comes with iSCSI target support (RBD doesn't need Pacemaker on the server end, as Ceph takes care of its own HA). Pacemaker also ties in directly with upstart, so any upstart job can be monitored as a Pacemaker service. And Pacemaker's clone facility makes it easy to run multiple instances of inherently stateless services with minimal configuration. What's more, Pacemaker comes with full integration for the ldirectord load-balancing service. Of course, Pacemaker adds a reliable communications layer (Corosync) and a multi-master, self-replicating configuration facility.

As for non-Nova Openstack services, Glance could use some Pacemaker integration (not hard to do; it's just that someone has to do it).

Ceph, in my opinion, has the very interesting potential of being a redundant, scalable storage one-stop shop for OpenStack. It serves the purposes of both volume/block storage (with RBD) and object storage (with RADOS/radosgw). And, as already pointed out, it comes with HA, replication, and scalability built-in.

Comments and feedback on the above are much appreciated. For OpenStack developers who visit this blog for the first time: you need to login to post comments in our effort to combat comment spam – but you can simply use your Launchpad OpenID to do so.

This article originally appeared on my blog on the hastexo.com website (now defunct).